Saturday, January 17, 2015


Room III - Bronze statues, votive or funerary and everyday life objects

In the FRIEZE “Prophecies of Daniel to Nebuchadnezzar” 1564 by Santi di Tito (1536/1603) and Niccolò Circignani aka Pomarancio (about 1520/98)

In the center of the room very important and beautiful bronze statue “Mars of Todi” about 400/390 BC found in 1835 at the Convent of Montesanto in Todi buried between four slabs of travertine, perhaps ritually and after being hit by lightning

It was merged from seven parts (head, arms, legs and trunk in two parts) and was fixed to a base with bronze parts visible beneath the feet
This Mars lost his helmet, but the remains of the spear and patera, or saucer with which he was making a libation, are kept in a showcase of the room
On the shield there is an inscription “Ahal Trututis Dunum Dede” (Ahal Trutitis gave as an offer) in the Umbrian language
The statue is associated with the cult of Mars that was practiced in Todi and is considered to be a work by Etruscan bronze sculptors influenced by the great Greek masters of the fifth century BC


“Tripod from Vulci” late sixth century BC


“Carrara Putto” fourth or late third century BC in bronze

“The statue falls into the category of votive offering depicting children, squatting or sitting, in the act of making an offering to the gods, as they are known from the ancient Etruscan sanctuaries of Lake Trasimeno, Vulci, Cerveteri. The appearance of our child with a mature face, has suggested that he could represent the mythical Tages, the visionary child with the wisdom of a senior who, in Tarquinia, miraculously appeared up from the ground during too deep a plowing. He first dictated to the principes Etruriae (princes of Etruria) the Etruscan discipline, or the foundations of Etruscan religion, later codified in the sacred books” (Web site of the Vatican Museums -

“Graziani Putto” first half of the second century BC in bronze

“Statuette of Haruspex” fourth century BC in solid cast bronze from the right shore of the Tiber River
The Haruspices were priests who predicted the future by examining the livers of sacrificed animals
The hat was always tied under the chin because, if the hat had fallen, it would have been a very bad omen

“Mirror engraved with Calchas” about 410 BC in bronze

“An Etruscan inscription qualifies this haruspex as Chalchas, or the mythical Greek soothsayer represented here in the Etruscan version of his iconography with the attribute of the wings, clear connotation that emphasizes his function as intermediary between the earthly and the transcendent. Note the foot resting on a rock, a fundamental action in the process of divination by a haruspex, that in so doing was establishing a contact with the ground as the site of the natural realm and of the underworld” (Web site of the Vatican Museums -


“Panoply of a warrior” (helmet, shield, greaves) late sixth or early fifth century BC from a tomb in Bomarzo

Curious “Trumpet” from Vulci

“Horses' harness” found in 1864 in the Pozzuolo Necropolis of Veii

“Anatomical Armor” about 350 BC from Bomarzo

“Helmet as Silenus' head” fourth century BC from Atella


“Mirror with Eos and Kephalos” about 470 BC from Vulci

“Oval cist decorated with Amazons” late fourth century BC from Vulci

“Collection of candelabra” about 375 BC from Vulci and Orte


“Funerary set of Laris Harenies” mid fourth century BC from Bolsena

Room IV - Objects of various kinds of stone

In the frieze “Allegorical figures and musical challenge between Apollo and Marsyas” about 1559/65 maybe by Orlando Parentini

“Pair of lions” in nenfro late sixth century BC
Nenfro is a variety of tuff dark gray and compact but not so resistant typical of the Latium region

“These lions have been found in a chamber tomb, where they had been guarding the entrance. The menacing aspect, with open jaws, agrees with the functions assigned to them that reveals the belief in survival of the deceased limited to borders of the tomb. The modeling of the sculpture follows the patterns of archaic art” (Web site of the Vatican Museums -

“Sarcophagus known as of the Magistrate” third century BC in nenfro from Tuscania with relief representing Etruscan magistrate the dead in 36 years on a chariot preceded by three men carrying the fasces, symbols of power

“Sarcophagus known as of the Poet” third century BC in nenfro from Tarquinia with cover not relevant and reliefs with stories about the Trojan War

“Sarcophagus with a polychrome relief” about 360 BC in marble from the Banditaccia Necropolis of Cerveteri with musicians and priest provided with lituus, a curved stick similar to the Christian bishops' pastoral

“Female Figurine” from Chiusi

Bilingual “Stele” from Todi

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