Sunday, February 10, 2019

St. JEROME OF CHARITY

S. GIROLAMO DELLA CARITÀ
A small church was built on the site where, according to tradition, St. Jerome on the year 382, was a guest in the house of the saint matron Paola
Known since 1492
Assigned in 1524 to the Arciconfraternita della Carità (Archconfraternity of Charity)
The church is linked to the figure of S. Filippo Neri (1515/95), known as St. Philip Neri in English
He lived for 33 years in the adjacent convent, in a room where there used to take place frequent meetings between four saints: Filippo Neri, Charles Borromeo, Ignatius of Loyola and Felice da Cantalice
In a barn adjoining the church S. Filippo Neri established the institution of the oratory
A fire in 1631 damaged the church
Rebuilt in the years 1632/37 by Francesco Peparelli (active since 1626/d. 1641)
Restored in the years 1652/60 by Domenico Castelli (1582/1657)

1660 completed by Carlo Rainaldi (1611/91) after the death in 1657 of Domenico Castelli who had already designed in 1647

FLOOR
Made of marble, 1660 by Alessandro Sarti

CEILING
1587 by the master carpenter Andrea Tozzi

1st RIGHT - CHAPEL OF OUR LADY or SPADA CHAPEL
1654 Giovanni Somazzi for Virgilio Spada
It is traditionally attributed to Francesco Borromini (1599/1667), of whom in fact there is only one project for the front of the altar and nothing else

Above the altar
“Madonna and Child” by an anonymous Sienese painter of the fifteenth century

At the sides of the altar
“Two medallions embossed with Sts. Francis and Bonaventure” by Pietro Paolo Naldini (1619/91)

On the right wall
“Tomb of Giovanni Spada” by Cosimo Fancelli (1620/88)

On the left wall
“Tomb of Lorenzo Bernardino Spada” by Ercole Ferrata (1610/86)
“Ferrata proved to be a faithful executor of the drawings supplied to him, showing a remarkable ability to adapt his style to the task requested. It is however acknowledged in him a tendency to tone down excessively dramatic and pathetic images in the name of that idea of Classicism of which he was then the main representative in Rome” (Gerardo Casale - Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Treccani)

Above the graves
“Six medallions embossed with illustrious ancestors of the Spada family”, three on each side:
“Amadore I with his brother Aleramo Spada” and “Pietro di Cecco and Serrone di Pietro Spada” by Pietro Paolo Naldini
“Amadore with his son Mengo Sword” by Ercole Antonio Raggi (1624/86)
“Amadore II Spada” by Francesco Baratta (about 1590/about 1663)
“Mutio with his nephew Antonello Spada” by Ercole Ferrata
“Ghino di Mengo Spada” by Giuseppe Perone

On the threshold of the chapel
Sculptural group in bloodstone with “Angels kneeling and tending tablecloth for the Eucharist” by Antonio Giorgetti (known from 1660/d. 1669), a pupil of Alessandro Algardi
The angel on the left has movable wooden wings in faux marble used as small door of the chapel
“Borromini had little to do with the project (...) and anything with its execution. The lavish style of the chapel is very different anyway from the one of the architect from Canton Ticino in his late period. It remains a masterpiece of Baroque Roman for the highly theatrical effect and the use of pictorial marquetry and marble slabs with fake damasks” (Olga Melasecchi)

2nd RIGHT - CHAPEL OF THE CROSS
It was remodeled in 1717, the year to which frescos and stuccos date back to
Above the altar “Wooden crucifix” mid-1400s in front of which tradition has it that S. Filippo Neri used to celebrate Mass

RIGHT TRANSEPT
“Tomb of the Earl Asdrubale from Montauto” 1629 Pietro Berrettini aka Pietro da Cortona (1597/1669)
“The baroque style is detectable in the original cyma around the portrait, with the ends curled and the hanging festoons, imitated by Carlo Maratta for his own grave at S. Maria degli Angeli” (Olga Melasecchi)

TO THE RIGHT OF THE MAIN ALTAR
CHAPEL OF St. JOHN THE BAPTIST formerly CASALI CHAPEL and later MARESCOTTI CHAPEL
Altarpiece “Madonna and Child with Sts. Joseph, John the Evangelist and John the Baptist” by Durante Alberti (1538/1616) who also painted the frescoes with “Stories of Jesus” damaged by a fire in 1630 and by some bad restorations in the eighteenth century

MAIN ALTAR
1645/47 Carlo Rainaldi (1611/91) for Fantino Renzi and his nephew Scipione Gisleni who are buried here and whose “Busts” by the school of Algardi are inserted in the walls
“Communion of St. Jerome” 1797 copy by Antonio Corsi from the famous 1614 original by Domenichino which was originally here and is now in the Pinacoteca Vaticana

TO THE LEFT OF THE MAIN ALTAR
ANTAMORO CHAPEL
1707 by the great architect Filippo Juvarra (1678/1736)
“He solved the narrowness of the available space creating movement with the ellipsoidal shape of the plan, opening a large oval window at the end and expanding the stucco decoration in the lantern where it ends in a glory of cherubims. The concave shape of the altar is a counterpoint of the convex part of the steps” (Olga Melasecchi)
Statue of “S. Filippo Neri” by Pierre Legros (1666/1719) perhaps also the author of the reliefs with “S. Filippo Neri in the Catacomb of St. Sebastian” and “S. Filippo Neri sees the souls of his penitents going to heaven” also attributed to Camillo Rusconi (1658/1728)

2nd LEFT - CHAPEL OF St. CHARLES BORROMEO or MALAGOTTI CHAPEL
“Madonna and Child appearing to Sts. Carlo Borromeo and Filippo Neri” by an unknown artist of the first half of the seventeenth century
On the sides “Fake perspectives” and “Annunciation” about 1748 by Girolamo Mengozzi aka Colonna (1688/1774) from Ferrara

1st LEFT - CHAPEL OF St. PETER
“Handing of the keys” maybe by Girolamo Muziano (1532/92)
Prospective frescoes by Girolamo Mengozzi aka Colonna

SACRISTY
Walnut furniture attributed to Filippo Juvarra (1678/1736)
“S. Filippo Neri in adoration of the Madonna and Child” about 1639 maybe by Pietro Barbieri (1684/1730) pupil of Carlo Maratta

CONVENT
In Via S. Girolamo della Carità 63
Rebuilt in the years 1632/37 by Francesco Peparelli (active since 1626/d. 1641)
Paintings with connections to S. Filippo Neri including “S. Filippo Neri in adoration of the Madonna and Child” about 1640 by Emilio Savonanzi (1580/1660) from Bologna

St. JEROME OF THE CROATS

S. GIROLAMO DEGLI ILLIRICI
Late fifteenth century on the area of a previous church of the eleventh century known as S. Marina
Sixtus IV Della Rovere (1471/84) assigned this area to the community of immigrants from Dalmatia and Illyria, the so-called Schiavoni, fled from their country for the invasion of the Turks. He built three large blocks along the river with their new church in the middle
It was rebuilt in the years 1588/89 by Martino Longhi the Elder (1534/91) for Sixtus V Peretti (1585/90) using for the FAÇADE his design that had been rejected for the Chiesa Nuova
The trimonzio (three mounds) and the coat of arms of Sixtus V on the pediment were made with marble taken from the Septizodium
It is the National Church of Croats

VAULT

COUNTER FAÇADE
On the right “Nicholas V” and left “Sixtus V” by Pietro Gagliardi

TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENTRANCE
“Funerary Monument of Paolo Gozze” d. 1660 by an anonymous artist of the school of Alessandro Algardi

1st RIGHT – ANNUNCIATION CHAPEL
To the right “Funerary Monument of Fortunato Rudel and Maria Iacoangeli”
To the left “Funerary monument of Bartolomeo Rudel and Teresa Gatti” both in marble 1869 by G. Carnevale

2nd RIGHT - CHAPEL OF OUR LADY OF THE STAR
Altarpiece “Madonna of the Star” 1745 by Filippo Bracci (1727/after 1746)
To the right “Birth of Mary” and to the left “Assumption of the Virgin Mary” mid-nineteenth century by Pietro Gagliardi

3rd RIGHT - CHAPEL OF S. ANNA
Altarpiece “Madonna and Child with St. Anne” 1631 by Giuseppe Puglia aka Bastaro (about 1600/36)
To the left “Monument to Luigi Lezzani” maybe by Ignazio Jacometti 1861 (1819/83)

RIGHT TRANSEPT
Huge “Adoration of the Magi” 1847/50 by Pietro Gagliardi (1809/90)

PAINTED FAKE DOME
“Triumph of the Trinity” about 1589/90 orchestrated by Giovanni Guerra (1544/1618) with Paris Nogari (about 1536/1601), Avanzino Nucci (1552/1629), Paolo Guidotti aka Cavalier Borghese (1560/1629), Andrea Lilio (about 1555/1632) and Antonio Viviani aka il Sordo (1560/1620)
“The perfect homogeneity between the decorations of the painted architecture and the real one emphasizes the spatial unit, perhaps to the detriment of the effect of illusionistic perspective for the excessive overhang of the architectural elements; however, finding the right spot, one is able to admire this fake dome, so important an antecedent in the history of Roman painted architecture” (Rosanna Barbiellini Amidei)

On the right
At the center
On the left
“St. Jerome dispute with the heretics” about 1588/89 by Antonio Viviani aka il Sordo (1560/1620), a pupil of Federico Fiori aka Barocci, and Andrea Lilio (about 1555/1632), designed by Giovanni Guerra (1544/1618)

“Glory of St. Jerome” about 1588/89 Paris Nogari (about 1536/1601)
“Hierarchies of angels” by Giovanni Guerra and assistants
“The iconography is rare and seems invented to emphasize the similarities between the actions of Sixtus V and the life of Jerome, in stark contrast to the figure of the penitent hermit who in those years had a large following in the Filippini clergy” (Rosanna Barbiellini Amidei)

1740 designed by Nicola Michetti (about 1675/1758), who also renewed the decorative furnishings of the church

TO THE LEFT OF THE SACRISTY
Sculpture “St. Jerome” by Francesco Grassia (XVII century)

LEFT TRANSEPT
Huge “Crucifixion” by Pietro Gagliardi (1809/90)

3rd LEFT - CHAPEL OF St. JEROME
Above the altar “St. Jerome” 1632 by Giuseppe Puglia aka Bastaro (about 1600/36)
Oval painting “St. Francis” about 1731 by Corrado Giaquinto (1703/66)
On the right “St. Paul in the Areopagus” and on the left “St. John the Baptist in the Desert” by Pietro Gagliardi

2nd LEFT - CHAPEL OF MERCY
Above the altar “Pieta” 1633 by Giuseppe Puglia aka Bastaro
On the right “Crowning with Thorns” and on the left “Christ prays in the Garden” by Pietro Gagliardi

1st LEFT - CHAPEL OF Sts. CLEMENT, CYRIL AND METHODIUS
Altarpiece “Sts. Clement and Methodius show the relics of St. Clement to Pope Hadrian II” 1650 Benigno Vangelini, artist who is not known for any other work

Saturday, February 9, 2019

St. JOHN OF THE PINE CONE

S. GIOVANNI DELLA PIGNA
Known since the year 955
It was given in 1585 to the Confraternita della Pietà ai Carcerati (Brotherhood of Mercy for Prisoners) who had it rebuilt in the late seventeenth century by Angelo Torrone
The Brotherhood was established in 1575 at the behest of the French Jesuit Giovanni Tallier. He was confessor in Roman prisons and organized a group of volunteers who took care of prisoners
In 1579 Gregory XIII Boncompagni (1572/85) promoted it to Archconfraternity
The church was renovated in the years 1700, 1837 maybe by Virginio Vespignani and 1983
It is in the district that took its name from the ancient bronze pine cone, which was found here. It was part of the decoration of the TEMPLE OF ISIS who was in this area and it was probably a fountain
It was placed in the atrium of the Basilica of St. Peter and it is now in the Courtyard of the Pine Cone in the Vatican Museums
The district was formerly called “Porcari District” from the noble family that had homes here in the Middle Ages: Stefano Porcari conspired against Nicholas V Parentucelli (1447/55) to make Rome a republic but he was hanged
Near the door “Tombs of Nicola, Giuliano and Giovanni Porcari” with mosaics of the fourteenth century
1st ALTAR ON THE RIGHT
“Martyrdom of S. Eleuterio” 1738 by Giacomo Zoboli (1681/1767)

2nd ALTAR ON THE RIGHT
“Conversion of S. Genesio” by an anonymous eighteenth-century Roman artist

Altarpiece “St. John the Baptist” about 1628 last work of Baldassarre Croce (about 1553/1628)
On the cyma “Pietà” about 1690 by Luigi Garzi (1638/1721)

2nd ALTAR ON THE LEFT
“Vision of St. Teresa of Avila” end of 1600s maybe by Antonio Gherardi (1638/1702)

1st ALTAR ON THE LEFT
“Madonna of S. Maria Maggiore” interesting work painted in archaic style by an anonymous seventeenth-century artist
It seems as if the ancient iconic image protector of Rome kept in the Basilica of St. Maria Maggiore would take full form in a new Baroque dimension and walk towards the viewer between adoring angels
Further on in the aisle “Funerary memory of Gaspare Elia” 1624, the benefactor of the Confraternity of Mercy for Prisoners which bequeathed his fortune

St. JOHN OF THE MALLOW PLANT

S. GIOVANNI DELLA MALVA
Known since 1123 as Sancti Iohannis Prope Portam Septimianam
Restored in 1475 for Sixtus IV Della Rovere (1471/84)
Demolished in 1818 as it was in ruins and rebuilt in the years 1845/51 by Giacomo Monaldi (1819/1905) for the Dukes Grazioli
It is dedicated to the IMMACULATE VIRGIN MARY, St. JOHN THE BAPTIST AND St. JOHN THE EVANGELIST as stated in a plaque inside the church
The current name, attested only from 1367, can either be derived from the mallow plant that used to grow nearby or from the corruption of the name Mica Aurea (golden sand), a name which in medieval times was given to the part of Janiculum Hill still known as Montorio
Furthermore, in some catalogs of Roman churches it is called Sancti Iohannis in Mica Aurea
“According to the practice of the time, the design of the Monaldi radically changed the original shape of the building: the longitudinal plan became a Greek cross, surmounted by a hemispherical dome 'with no drum and set on three perimetrical steps with function of containing pressure' (De Tomasso). (...) The language of Monaldi, fully drawing on the architecture of the sixteenth century, it is most often marked by a great stylistic sobriety. Definitely more daring and overloaded, in tune with the tastes of the period, are the decorations of the interior, that Monaldi used to treat with care in every detail” (Raffaella Catini - Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Treccani)
MAIN ALTAR
“Virgin Mary between Sts. John the Baptist and John the Evangelist” by an anonymous seventeenth-century artist