Monday, November 16, 2020


According to the 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio, the directory book of the Holy See

The numbers in brackets indicate the approximate duration in years of the pontificate. The names in purple indicate popes not officially recognized by the Catholic Church

1. St. Peter Bethsaida in Galilee? 33 67 (34)

Martyred in Rome

2. St. Linus Volterra 67 76 (9)

3. St. Cletus Rome 76 88 (12)

4. St. Clement I Rome 88 99 (11)

Freeman martyred under Domitian. The body was moved to the Basilica of S. Clemente in 867 by the Sts. Cyril and Methodius

5. St. Evaristus Bethlehem (Judea) 99 107 (8)

6. St. Alexander I Rome 107 115 (8)

Relics found in the Catacomb of St. Priscilla and moved in part in the 3rd chapel on the right in S. Lorenzo in Lucina, and in part in the altar of S. Ivo alla Sapienza

7. St. Sixtus I Rome 115 125 (10)

8. St. Telesphorus Terranova da Sibari (Calabria) 125 136 (11)

9. St. Hyginus Athens (Greece) 136 140 (4)

10. St. Pius I Aquileia 140 155 (15)

11. St. Anicetus Emesa (Syria) 155 166 (11)

Buried in the Church of S. Aniceto in Palazzo Altemps

12. St. Soter Fondi (Latium) 166 174 (8)

13. St. Eleuterus Nicopolis (Epirus) 174 189 (15)

14. St. Victor I Africa 189 199 (10)

15. St. Zephyirinus Rome 199 217 (18)

16. St. Callixtus I Rome 217 222 (5)

Catacomb of St. Callisto

Ippolito 217/235

17. St. Urban I Rome 222 230 (8)

18. St. Pontian Rome 230 235 (5)

He died in exile in Sardinia

19. St. Anterus Policastro (Calabria) 235 236 (43 days)

20. St. Fabian Rome 236 250 (14)

Albani Chapel dedicated to him in the Basilica of St. Sebastian

21. St. Cornelius Rome 251 253 (2)

Novatian 251/258

22. St. Lucius I Rome 253 254 (1)

23. St. Stephan I Rome 254 257 (3)

24. St. Sixtus II Athens 257 258 (1)

25. St. Dionysius Terranova da Sibari (Calabria) 259 268 (9)

26. St. Felix I Rome 269 274 (5)

27. St. Eutychian Luni 275 283 (9)

28. St. Caius Salona (Dalmatia) 283 296 (12)

29. S. Marcellino Rome 296 304 (8)

First pope about whom there is a document (in the Catacomb of St. Callixtus) in which he is mentioned as "Papa", standing for Pater Patrum, the same name that was given to the heads of the Mithraic religion. He was killed during the persecution of Diocletian in the year 304

30. S. Marcello I Rome 308 309 (1)

31. St. Eusebius Sardinia 309 310 (1)

32. St. Miltiades Africa 311 314 (3)

He received the Lateran Basilica as a gift from Fausta wife of Constantine. In 313 Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity

33. St. Sylvester Sant’Angelo a Scala (Avellino) 314 335 (22)

In 325 in the first Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, which condemned the doctrine of Arius. He consecrated the Mamertine Prison as an oratory. S. Paolo alla Regola

34. St. Mark Rome January/October 336 (263 days)

St. Mark's Basilica where he is buried

35. St. Julius I Rome 337 352 (15)

Basilica of S. Valentino

36. St. Liberius Rome 352 366 (14)

Legendary foundation of the Basilica S. Maria Maggiore or Liberian Basilica

Felix II 355/365

37. St. Damasus Spain 366 384 (18)

Maybe he was born in Rome. S. Lorenzo in Damaso. Elected in S. Lorenzo in Lucina known as Titulus Lucinae at the time. In 380 with the edict of Thessalonica Christianity became state religion

Ursinus 366/367 exiled - Deacon

38. St. Siricius Rome 384 399 (15)

With him the word "pope" is not another word for bishop, but it only refers to the Roman pontiff. The Basilica of St. Paul was built around the years 384/390 and consecrated in 395. Sts. Marcellinus and Peter. S. Pudenziana. In 395 suppression of paganism in Rome

39. St. Anastasius I Rome 399 401 (2)

He founded the Titulus Crescentinae later S. Sisto Vecchio

40. St. Innocent I Albano 401 417 (15)

Costruction of the church of S. Vitale in 412

41. S. Zosimus Greek born in Mesoraca (Calabria) 417 418 (1)

42. S. Bonifacius I Rome 418 422 (4)

Eulalius 418/419 exiled

43. St. Celestine I Campania 422 432 (10)

S. Sabina. In 431 the Council of Ephesus is held

44. St. Sixtus III Rome 432 440 (8)

He built S. Maria Maggiore, the Basilica Eudossiana and S. Lorenzo in Lucina. He modified the Lateran Baptistery

45. St. Leo I the Great Volterra (Tuscia) 440 461 (21)

According to tradition he persuaded Attila not to invade Rome. The chains of St. Peter joined as he was holding them in his hands in the Basilica Eudossiana

46. St. Hilarius Sardinia 461 468 (6)

47. St. Simplicius Tivoli 468 483 (15)

St. Peter of Charity and St. Sylvester in Tivoli. In 476 the Western Roman Empire ended

48. St. Felix II (III) Rome 483 492 (9)

49. St. Gelasius I Kabylie (Africa) 492 496 (4)

Maybe he was born in Rome. He instituted the Candelora feast, which replaced the pagan festival of the Lupercalia

50. Anastasius II Roma 496 498 (2)

Tried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism

51. St. Symmachus Sardinia 498 514 (16)

He chose the Vatican as his residence, having to fight against the anti-pope Lorenzo. S. Martino ai Monti. Basilica S. Pancrazio. He established the diaconate of S. Lucia in Selci. He restored for the last time the large funeral Basilica of St. Agnes Outside the Walls, later abandoned and rebuilt smaller by Honorius I

Lawrence 498/505 exiled

52. St. Hormisdas Frosinone 514 523 (9)

53. St. John I Tuscia Populonia 523 526 (3)

He died in Ravenna

54. St. Felix III (IV) Sannio 526 530 (4)

Sts. Cosmas and Damian. He is represented in the apse mosaic. In 526 Theodoric dies

55. Boniface II Rome 530 532 (2)

He changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita (Since the Foundation of Rome) to Anno Domini (Year of the Lord)

Dioscorus Alexandria September/October 530

56. John II Rome 533 535 (2)

First pope to change his name (he was called Mercury). Elected in St. Peter in Chains

57. St. Agapetus I Rome 535 536 (1)

He died at Constantinople. In 535 the Greek-Gothic War began. It would last until 553

58. St. Silverius Ceccano (Frosinone) 536 537 (1)

Deposed and exiled in 537. He died in Ponza in 538. Belisarius who had deposed him, erected S. Maria in Trivio to make amends. In 536 the Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Rome

59. Vigilius Rome 537 555 (18)

He died in Syracuse. He built an underground basilica around the tomb of the martyr Hippolytus on Via Nomentana. In 546 Rome was sacked by the Ostrogoth king Totila. In 552 it was retaken by the Byzantine general Narses. In 553 the Greek-Gothic War ended and Rome became the capital of the Byzantine Duchy of Rome for nearly 200 years until 751

60. Pelagius I Rome 556 561 (5)

He began the Basilica of the Holy Apostles to celebrate the end of the Greek-Gothic War. Suspected of the assassination of his predecessor Vigilius, he solemnly swore in the Basilica of S. Pancras of Rome a solemn oath of innocence in front of the Byzantine viceroy

61. John III Rome 561 574 (13)

He completed in 570 the Basilica of the Holy Apostles

62. Benedict I 575 579 Roma (4

He died in Rome during the siege of the Lombards

63. Pelagius II Rome 579 590 (10)

Minor Basilica of St. Lawrence Outside the Walls. He died of the plague broke out after the flood of the Tiber in 589

64. St. Gregory I the Great Rome 590 604 (14)

He founded in 575 the monastery of St. Andrew on Celium Hill where the church of St. Gregory would be built. He raised the floor of the Basilica of St. Paul in order to have the altar over the tomb. After the plague of 590 he changed the name of Hadrian’s Mausoleum into Castel Sant'Angelo after the procession during which an angel appeared. In less than two years 10,000 Angles, including the king of Kent, Ædelbert, were converted. He thoroughly reorganized the Roman liturgy, ordering earlier liturgical sources and editing new texts, and promoted the chants called Gregorian from his name. He was the first pope who placed the papacy on the road to power, the first who used the temporal power of the Church not forgetting, however, the spiritual aspect of his task

65. Sabiniano Blera (Tusculum) 604 606 (1)

66. Boniface III Rome 607 (266 days)

67. St. Boniface IV Valeria dei Marsi 608 615 (7)

He transformed the Pantheon into a church in 609. Buried beneath the altar of St. Thomas in the left transept of the Basilica of St. Peter

68. St. Adeodatus I Rome 615 618 (3)

69. Boniface V Naples 619 625 (6)

70. Honorius I Campania 625 638 (13)

Basilica of St. Agnes Outside the Walls and the apse mosaic. Sts. Luke and Martina. He rebuilt the Basilica of St. Pancras. He removed the plates of gilded bronze from the Basilica of Maxentius for use in St. Peter. Abbey of the Three Fountains. He restructured the Basilica of S. Valentino. Sts. Andrew and Bartholomew at the Lateran. He changed the Curia of the Forum into the church of St. Hadrian at the Forum. He expanded the church of Ss. Quattro Coronati

71. Severinus Rome 638 640 (2)

72. John IV Zara (Dalmatia) 640 642 (2)

Chapel of St. Venanzio in the Lateran Baptistery

73. Theodore Greece 642 649 (7)

Mosaic in the chapel of Ss. Primo and Feliciano in S. Stefano Rotondo. He is represented in the mosaic of St. Venanzio Chapel in the Lateran Baptistery

74. St. Martin I Todi 649 653 (4)

Deported in 653 by the imperial authority of Constantinople. He died in exile in 655. Last pope considered a martyr

75. St. Eugene Rome 654 657 (3)

76. St. Vitalian Segni 657 672 (15)

Last visit of a Byzantine emperor in Rome with Constans II in 663 who stayed on the Palatine Hill. He reintroduced sacred music

77. Adeodatus II Rome 672 676 (4)

78. Donus Roma 676 678 (2)

79. St. Agatho Palermo (Sicily) 678 681 (3)

80. St. Leo II Aidone (Sicily) 682 683 (1)

Buried in the Chapel of Our Lady of the Pillar in St. Peter’s Basilica. The Liber Pontificalis attributes to him the foundation of St. George in Velabro

81. St. Benedict II Rome 684 685 (1)

82. John V Antioch 685 686 (1)

83. Conon Thrace 686 687 (1)

Theodore 687

Paschal 687/692

84. St. Sergius I Syria 687 701 (14)

Born in Palermo from a Syrian family. He introduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass against the decisions of the Quinisext Concil held in 692 at Constantinople

85. John VI Ephesus (Turkey) 701 705 (4)

86. John VII Rossano (Calabria) 705 707 (3)

He used the Domus Tiberiana as a residence. He had a chapel decorated in St. Peter's Basilica with a mosaic cycle lost except for three fragments: one in S. Maria in Domnica and the others in S. Marco in Florence and in the Cathedral of Orte. Fourth layer of paintings in S. Maria Antiqua

87. Sisinnius Syria 708 (20 days)

88. Constantine Syria 708 715 (7)

Last pope to visit Constantinople

89. St. Gregory II Rome 715 731 (16)

He was given by the Byzantine Emperor Liutprando the territory of Sutri, which formed the first territory of the Papal States. Inscription in the atrium of St. Peter's Basilica with a donation of 56 olive trees for oil lamps to keep running continuously around the tomb of St. Peter

90. St. Gregory III Syria 731 741 (11)

He covered the roof of the Pantheon with lead and enlarged S. Crisogono

91. St. Zachary Greece 741 752 (10)

He was a Greek born in S. Severina in Calabria. He granted St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception in Campomarzio to the Basilian nuns who had brought from Constantinople the body of St. Gregory Nazianzen. About 750 drafting in the Lateran of the false document of the Donation of Constantine. 751 with the capture of Ravenna end of the Byzantine presence in northern and central Italy

92. Stephen Rome 752 (3 days)

He died three days after the election before the consecration. He does not appear on many lists of popes

93. St. Stephen II (III) Rome 752 757 (5)

S. Silvestro in Capite. In 756 Rome is besieged by the Lombards

94. St. Paul I Rome 757 767 (10)

Oratory over which was later built S. Maria Nova known eventually as S. Francesca Romana. He transferred the relics of St. Petronilla, protector of the Franks, from the Catacomb of St. Domitilla to St. Peter's Basilica

Constantine II Nepi 767/768 deposed 768

Philip 768

95. Stephen III (IV) Syracuse (Sicily) 768 772 (4)

96. Hadrian I Rome 772 795 (24)

He expanded S. Maria in Cosmedin. He restored St. Peter in Chains. He founded one of his great fortified farms (domusculta) protected against the Saracens in Galeria. His epitaph is in the atrium of the Basilica of St. Peter written by Charlemagne. In 774 Charlemagne defeated the Lombard kingdom and went to Rome for the first time

97. St. Leo III Rome 795 816 (21)

He crowned Charlemagne Emperor on Christmas Eve 800 in St. Peter’s Basilica. He transferred the relics of Sts. Nereus and Achilleus from the Catacombs of St. Domitilla to the church of Sts. Nereus and Achilleus which he had built. He is buried in the Chapel of Our Lady of the Pillar in St. Peter’s Basilica

98. St. Stephen IV (V) Rome 816 817 (1)

99. St. Paschal I Roma 817 824 (7)

S. Cecilia, S. Maria in Domnica, St. Praxedes, St. Stephen of Cacco

100. Eugenio II Rome 824 827 (3)

101. Valentine Rome 827 (40 days)

102. Gregory IV Rome 827 844 (16)

He built GREGORIOPOLI in Ostia. He rebuilt St. George in Velabro and the Basilica of S. Mark, where it appears in the apse mosaic

John 844

103. Sergius II Rome 844 847 (3)

He rebuilt S. Martino ai Monti. Basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul were plundered by the Saracens in 846 AD

104. St. Leo IV Rome 847 855 (8)

He restored the church Ss. Quattro Coronati. Lower Basilica frescoes in S. Clement. He built a church incorporating a small oratory in the Forum, which would later become S. Maria Nova and eventually S. Francesca Romana. Leonine City and Leonine Walls around St. Peter. He defeated the Saracens at Ostia in 848. He helped the refugees from Centumcellae to found LEOPOLI (Cencelle). He is buried in the Chapel of Our Lady of the Pillar in St. Peter’s Basilica

Anastasius 855 deposed

105. Benedict III Rome 855 858 (3)

106. S. Nicholas I the Great Rome 858 867 (9)

He greatly consolided papal authority and power. He restored S. Maria in Cosmedin

107. Hadrian II Rome 867 872 (5)

Received by the Ss. Cyril and Methodius the relics of St. Clement (4th Pope) that buried in the homonymous basilica

108. John VIII Rome 872 882 (10)

He built GIOVANNOPOLI around the Basilica of St. Paul. Charles the Bald crowned emperor in St. Peter’s in 875

109. Marino I Gallese (Viterbo) 882 884 (2)

110. St. Hadrian III Rome 884 885 (1)

111. Stephen V (VI) Rome 885 891 (6)

112. Formoso Corsica or Ostia 891 896 (5)

His body was exhumed and brought to trial by Stephen VI's famous “Synod of the Cadaver”

113. Boniface VI Rome 896 (15 days)

114. Stephen VI (VII) Rome 896 897 (1)

115. Roman Gallese (Viterbo) 897 (92 days)

116. Theodore II Rome 897 (20 days)

117. John IX Tivoli 898 900 (2)

118. Benedict IV Rome 900 903 (3)

119. Leo V Ardea 903 (123 days)

Christopher Rome 903/904 deposed

120. Sergius III Rome 904 911 (7)

Counts of Tusculum. First pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara

121. Anastasio III Rome 911 913 (2)

122. Lando Sabina 913 914 (1)

123. John X Tossignano (Ravenna) 914 928 (14)

He had the Italian principalities and the Byzantine Empire unified against the Muslims Saracens getting a decisive victory on the Garigliano River in 915. He was deposed by order of Marozia and killed in 929 in Castel Sant'Angelo

124. Leo VI Rome 928 (186 days)

125. Stephen VII (VIII) Rome 929 931 (2)

126. John XI Rome 931 935 (5)

Counts of Tusculum. Deposed in 935

127. Leo VII Rome 936 939 (3)

128. Stephen VIII (IX) Rome 939 942 (3)

Some unreliable sources describe him as a German

129. Marinus II Rome 942 946 (4)

130. Agapetus II Rome 946 955 (9)

131. John XII Rome 955 963 (9)

Octavian of the Counts ​​of Tusculum

Deposed in 963, he died in 964. He was 16 years old when he became pope. He was the second pope to change his name after John II 420 years before. In 962 he crowned Emperor Otto I, restoring the Holy Roman Empire that lasted until 1806. He was deposed for his improper behaviour

132. Leo VIII Rome 963 964 (82 days)

He was eposed and died in 965

133. Benedict V Rome 964 (32 days)

He was exiled and died in Bremen in 966

134. John XIII Roma 965 972 (7)

135. Benedict VI Rome 973 974 (1)

He was deposed and murdered

Boniface VII 974 for the first time

136. Benedict VII Rome 974 983 (9)

Counts of Tusculum. He consecrated the rebuilt Monastery of Subiaco with the name of St. Benedict and St. Scholastica. He founded the convent of the Basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme

137. John XIV Pavia 983 984 (1)

Pietro Canepanova di Pavia

Boniface VII 984/985 for the second time

138. John XV Rome 985 996 (11)

139. Gregory V Carinthia 996 999 (3)

Bruno of the Counts of Carinthia

First German pope. He enriched and expanded a small church in the Forum and gave it the name of S. Maria Nova (later to become S. Francesca Romana). He became pope only 24 years old. He was the grandson of Emperor Otto I. In 998 he sent an embassy to the Ukrainian court of Volodymir Prince of Kiev; from that date it began the widespread acceptance of Christianity in Ukraine

John XVI Greek of Calabria 997 deposed in 997, killed in 998

140. Sylvester II Auvergne (France) 999 1003 (4)

Gerbert d'Aurillac

First French pope. Born as a poor shepherd, he became advisor to Emperor Otto III. He crowned St. Stephen King of Hungary. He was a well learned man and a follower of esoteric sciences which earned him a reputation as a magician and prophet. Buried in St. John Lateran Basilica in a tomb which, according to legend, gave off noise and sweated just before the death of a pope

141. John XVII Rome 1003 (174 days)

Siccone Secchi

142. John XVIII Rapagnano (Ascoli) 1004/09 (5)

Giovanni Fasano

143. Sergius IV Rome 1009/12 (3)

Pietro Boccadiporco

Buried in St. John Lateran Basilica

144. Benedict VIII Rome 1012/24 (12)

Theophylactus of the Counts of Tusculum

Gregory VI Rome 1012

145. John XIX Rome 1024/32 (8)

Romano of the Counts of Tusculum

146. Benedict IX Rome 1032/44 (12) first term

Theophylactus III of the Counts of Tusculum

147. Sylvester III Rome 1045 (56 days)

Giovanni dei Crescenzi Ottaviani

148. Benedict IX for the second time 1045 (52 days) second term

Theophylactus III of the Counts of Tusculum

The only Pope ever to be elected twice. Two years later he would be elected even for a third time. He was deposed by the Council of Sutri

149. Gregory VI Rome 1045/46 (2)

Giovanni Graziano Pierleoni

Last pope from Rome or Lazio region until 1130

150. Clement II Hornburg (Saxony) 1046/47 (1)

Suidger von Morsleben-Hornburg

He died in Pesaro in 1047. Bishop of Bamberg (Bavaria)

151. Benedict IX for the third time 1047/48 (252 days)

Theophylactus III of the Counts of Tusculum

He died after the third expulsion

152. Damasus II Pildenau (Bavaria) 1048 (23 days)


He died in Palestrina

153. St. Leo IX Alsace 1049/54 (5)

Bruno of the Counts of Egisheim-Hirschberg

He is buried under the Altar of St. Peter in the left transept of St. Peter's Basilica. His reign was considered as the beginning of the papal reform revolution. In 1054 the schism between the West Catholic church and the Orthodox Church of the East began. It ended symbolically, if not substantially, only in 1965

154. Victor II Swabia 1055/57 (2)

Gebherard II of the Counts of Dollestein-Hirschberg

He died at Arezzo in 1057

155. Stephen IX (X) Lorena 1057/58 (1)

Frédéric Gozzelone of the Dukes of Lorraine

He died in Florence in 1058

Benedict X Rome 1058/59 Giovanni aka Mincio, of the Counts of Tusculum

156. Nicholas II Chevron (Savoy) 1059/61 (2)

Gerard de Bourgogne

Since 1059 the election of the pope would only be reserved for cardinal bishops. From 1130 it will be extended to all the cardinals

157. Alexander II Verona 1061/73 (12)

Anselmo of the Counts of Baggio

He restored S. Biagio della Pagnotta. He authorised the Norman conquest of England in 1066

Honorius II 1061/72 Pietro Cadalus

158. St. Gregory VII Sovana (Grosseto) 1073/85 (12)

Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi of Soana

Elected in St. Peter in Chains. Maybe he had the church of St. Gregory the Divine Mercy built. He was the most important of the popes in the eleventh century. He thoroughly reformed the Church, but he is best known for his role in the investiture controversy, which put him at odds with the Emperor Henry IV. Henry appointed an anti-pope: Ghiberto, placed on the throne as Clement III to occupy Rome. Gregory VII took refuge in Castel Sant'Angelo, from where, while conducting negotiations with Henry, he sent for the rescue of the Norman Robert Guiscard. On May 21, 1084 Guiscard entered Rome and rescued the pontiff, but his troops completely devastated the city bringing worse destruction than in 410 or in 1527. Most of the ancient remains, still standing at the time, and churches were destroyed; since then the entire population of Rome concentrated in the Campus Martius and left the hills. Guiscard’s call did not, however, have the expected results: Henry was crowned emperor by the anti-pope Clement III, while Gregory VII had to flee from Rome, despised, at this point, by the Roman people, and died in Salerno

Clement III Parma 1080/1100

Ghiberto da Correggio deposed in 1100 - died in Ravenna

159. Bl. Victor III Benevento 1086/87 (1)

Desiderio Epifani

He lived in the Tower of the Caetanis for two months with Matilda of Canossa

160. Bl. Urban II Chatillon (Champagne, France) 1088/99 (11)

Odon of the Lords of Chatillon

Proclaimed the First Crusade in 1095. Jerusalem was conquered in 1099. He lived in the Tower of the Caetanis for a year. He moved to S. Maria in Monticelli the relics of five martyrs from Palermo

161. Paschal II Blera (Tuscia) 1099 1118 (19)

Raniero Ranieri of Blera

Basilica of S. Clement. He rebuilt Ss. Quattro Coronati and S. Lorenzo in Lucina. He restored S. Bartolomeo all’Isola, S. Maria in Monticelli, S. Stefano del Cacco. He built the original chapel of S. Maria del Popolo. He buried Leo II, III and IV in the Chapel of Our Lady of the Pillar in St. Peter’s Basilica

Teodoric 1100/02 - Albert 1102 - Sylvester IV Roma 1105/11 Maginulfo

162. Gelasius II Gaeta 1118/19 (1)

Giovanni Crescenzi Caetani

He died in Cluny in 1119. He restored S. Maria in Cosmedin

Gregory VIII Limousin (France) 1118/21 Maurice Bourdin d. 1125

163. Callixtus II Burgundy 1119/24 (6)

Gui of William Count of Burgundy

St. Paschal Baylon. He restored S. Maria in Cosmedin with his camerarius Alfano. Enlarged S. Agnese in Agone. He opened the First Lateran Council in 1123

Celestine II Rome 1124 Theobald Buccapecus

164. Honorius II Casal Fiumanese (Imola) 1124/30 (5) 164

Lamberto Scannabecchi

165. Innocent II Rome 1130/43 (14)

Gregorio Papareschi

He rebuilt S. Maria in Trastevere (where he is buried) with materials from the Baths of Caracalla. S. Tommaso in Parione. Portico of S. Stefano Rotondo. Second Lateran Council in 1139 to stop the schism of 1130/38 after the death of Honorius II. Revolution in 1143 against the papal power: the republic was proclaimed and a senate was elected for the first time since the seventh century

Anacleto II 1130/38 Pietro Pierleoni

Victor IV 1138 Gregory of the Counts of Tusculum

166. Celestine II Città di Castello 1143/44 (164 days)

Guido di Città di Castello

167. Lucio II Bologna 1144/45 (1)

Gerardo Caccianemici Dell’Orso

He transformed the Basilica S. Croce in Gerusalemme and added the bell tower. He recognized the Roman Republic

168. Bl. Eugene III Montemagno (Pisa) 1145/53 (8)

Berardo Paganelli Montemagno

Second Crusade 1147/49. He named the town of Rocca di Papa. In 1145 he recognized the Republic of Rome

169. Anastasius IV Rome 1153/54 (1)

Corrado della Suburra

He used the Pantheon as a papal seat

170. Adrian IV Abbots Langley Hertfordshire (UK) 1154/59 (5)

Nicholas Breakspeare

Only English pope ever. Buried in the grottoes of St. Peter's Basilica. He crowned Frederick Barbarossa June 18, 1155 in St. Peter's Basilica. On the same days the heretical religious reformer Arnold of Brescia, was executed and burned, and his ashes thrown into the Tiber River. He purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England

171. Alexander III Siena 1159/81 (22)

Rolando Bandinelli

He died in Civita Castellana in 1181 He restored S. Bartolomeo all'Isola e S. Maria Nova. Buried in St. John Lateran Basilica. He inspired the name to Alexander VII Chigi (1655/67) being from Siena as well. In 1167 Frederick Barbarossa takes hold of Rome and suppresses the communal power. In 1178 Alexander III would return triumphantly to Rome. Third Lateran Council opened in 1179

Victor IV (V) Tivoli 1159/64 Ottaviano of the Counts of Monticelli

Paschal III 1164/68 Guido da Crema

Callistus III Hungary 1168/78 John Abbot of Strumio

Innocent III Sezze 1179/80 Lando Frangipane. deposed

172. Lucius III Lucca 1181/85 (4)

Ubaldo Allucingoli

173. Urban III Cuggiono (Milan) 1185/87 (2)

Uberto Crivelli

174. Gregory VIII Benevento 1187 (57 days)

Alberto De Morra

175. Clement III Rome 1187/91 (3)

Paolo Scolari

Third Crusade 1189/92

176. Celestine III Rome 1191/98 (7)

Giacinto Bobone Orsini

He rebuilt the church of S. Eustachio in 1196. In 1188 he aknowledged the autonomy of the Municipality of Rome

177. Innocent III Anagni 1198/1216 (18)

Lotario of the Counts of Segni

First pope elected by a conclave. He met St. Francis of Assisi and accepted the Franciscan order. He declared the Fourth Crusade of 1198 and the Fifth Crusade which took place after his death in the years 1217/21. Buried in St. John Lateran. He represented the height of papal authority in the Middle Ages. In the year 1200 St. Peter's estate formally became the Papal States. He founded in 1204 the Hospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, the oldest hospital in Rome. Torre delle Milizie and Torre dei Conti. Tower in the Vatican where later the Niccolina Chapel would be built. In 1215 he summoned the Fourth Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council), which issued 70 decrees for reform. It was finally declared the superiority of the Church than any other secular power, as the sole custodian of Grace and exclusive mediator between God and mankind. He established the Inquisition against heresy, but he also encouraged the mendicant orders

178. Honorius III Rome 1216/27 (11)

Cencio Savelli

1191 S. Marina in Ardea. New Basilica of St. Lawrence Outside the Walls built above the Pelagian Basilica. He restored S. Maria in Campitelli and Ss. Giovanni e Paolo as well before he became pope. He rebuilt S. Alessio and turned into a fortress the Savelli house where he had lived on the Aventine Hill. Church known as Annunziatella. Mosaic of the apse of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Wall. In 1220 he crowned Emperor Frederick II

179. Gregory IX Anagni 1227/41 (14)

Ugolino of the Counts of Segni

He enlarged S. Maria del Popolo. Sixth Crusade of Frederick II in 1228, the only peaceful one. He rebuilt S. Eusebio

180. Celestine IV Milan 1241 (16 days)

Goffredo Castiglione

181. Innocent IV Genoa 1243/54 (11)

Sinibaldo Fieschi of the Counts of Lavagna

1252/58 Brancaleone Andalò was the leader of a popular government. Seventh Crusade 1249/50

182. Alexander IV Jenne (Rome) 1254 1261 (6)

Rinaldo dei Conti di Segni

The construction of the new S. Maria in Aracoeli, entrusted to the Franciscans, began. He had decorated as a cardinal the Oratory of S. Silvestro in Ss. Quattro Coronati

183. Urban IV Troyes (France) 1261/64 (3)

Jacques Pantaléon

184. Clement IV Saint Gilles sur Rhone (France) 1265/68 (3)

Gui Foulques Le Gros

His father, the Carthusian Fercoldo is painted in the trompe l'oeil door in the Cloister of Michelangelo at the Museo delle Terme. He appointed Charles of Anjou in 1265 as king of Sicily and Naples. He excommunicated Conrad of Swabia after the uncle Manfredi had been killed in Benevento. He proclaimed the Eighth Crusade which took place in 1270 with Charles of Anjou

185. Bl. Gregory X Piacenza 1271/76 (5)

Teobaldo Visconti

Elected after 1006 days of vacancy (29 November 1268 – 1 September 1271), the longest period ever. Second Council of Lyons

186. Bl. Innocent V Tarentaise (Savoie) 1276 (153 days)

Pierre de Tarentaise

187. Adrian V Genoa 1276 (38 days)

Ottobono Fieschi of the Counts of Lavagna

188. John XXI Lisbon 1276/77 (1)

Pedro Julião (Peter of Spain)

He should have been John XX but he wanted to correct what in his time was believed to be an error in the counting of his predecessors John XV to XIX. So there was no pope with the name John XX ever

189. Nicholas III Rome 1277/80 (3)

Giovanni Gaetano Orsini

First pope to reside in the Vatican area. He enlarged the building there. He had S. Maria sopra Minerva reconstructed. Oratory of S. Lorenzo in Palatio or Palatine Chapel at the Lateran, later known as Sancta Sanctorum (Holy of Holies). He dismantled the Angevin power in Rome and started a theological and artistic program of renewal (Renovatio Romae) proposing to celebrate the religious and political supremacy of Rome. Dante puts him in Hell as he considered him a nepotistic Pope

190. Martin IV Montpincé in Brie (France) 1281/85 (4)

Simon de Brion

191. Honorius IV Rome 1285/87 (2)

Iacopo Savelli

He had S. Maria in Aracoeli rebuilt maybe by Arnolfo di Cambio. Tombs of his parents with his statue in the right transept of S. Maria in Aracoeli

192. Nicholas IV Lisciano (Ascoli Piceno) 1288/92 (4)

Gerolamo Masci

Transept and apse of S. Maria Maggiore, where his tomb made in 1574 by Domenico Fontana is,  with statues by Leonardo Sormani. Apse mosaic of St. John Lateran Basilica. S. Margherita. Responsible for the  imposing pictorial program of St. Francis Basilica in Assisi. First Franciscan pope and first missionary pope for having sent Franciscan friars to China

193. St. Celestine V Sant’Angelo Limosano (Isernia) 1294 (161 days)

Pietro Angeleri da Morrone

He was elected after two years of vacancy. He retired voluntarily from the papal throne. He was described by Dante: "He who through cowardice made the great refusal." He died in 1296

194. Boniface VIII Anagni 1294/1303 (9)

Benedetto Caetani

First Jubilee Year in 1300. He established the University La Sapienza in 1303. He razed to the ground the Palazzo Colonna of Palestrina in 1298. He fortified the Torre delle Milizie against the Colonna family. In 1303 famous "slap of Anagni" by Sciarra Colonna for the many excommunications made to his family. Buried in the Vatican grottoes in St. Peter's Basilica

195. Bl. Benedict XI Treviso 1303/04 (1)

Niccolò Boccasini

196. Clement V Villandraut, Bordeaux (France) 1305/14 (9)

Bertrand de Goth

Elected by a conclave held in Perugia which lasted eleven months (apparently for the continued interference of Philip IV the Fair). Instead of going back to Rome, which was then torn by factional struggles, he made his home in 1305 in Poitiers first and, since 1309, in Avignon. He arrested all the Templars in France and suppressed their order

197. John XXII Cahors, Quercy (France) 1316/34 (18)

Jacques Arnaud d'Euse

Nicholas V Rieti 1328/30 resigned in 1330 on the same year he died

198. Benedict XII Saverdun, Toulouse (France) 1334/42 (7)

Jacques Fournier

199. Clement VI Chateau Maumont (Limoges) 1342/52 (11)

Pierre Roger de Rosieres

He celebrated the second Jubilee Year in 1350, reducing the time interval from 100 to 50 years. In Rome in 1347 Cola di Rienzo seized power, he would be killed in 1354. In 1348 black plague throughout Europe. 1349 earthquake destroyed part of the Colosseum and the Torre dei Conti

200. Innocent VI Mont (Beyssac) 1352/62 (10)

Étienne d'Aubert

In 1358 the people government of the Felice Società dei Balestrieri e Pavesati (Happy Company of Archers and Banner Holders) in Rome that will last 40 years, up to 1398

201. Bl. Urban V Chateau de Grisac (Languedoc) 1362/70 (8)

Guillaume de Grimoard

He returned to Rome in 1367 with only three French cardinals and remained there for three years until 1370 when he returned to Avignon, where he died soon after

202. Gregory XI Chateau Maumont (Limoges) 1370/78 (7)

Pierre Roger de Beaufort

He returned to Rome persuaded by St. Catherine of Siena on 17 January 1377. Tomb by Pietro Paolo Olivieri in S. Francesca Romana

203. Urban VI Napoli 1378/89 (11)

Bartolomeo Prignano

He began in 1378 the Western Schism that lasted until 1417. He called the third Jubilee in 1390 by reducing the time interval from 50 to 33 years. He excommunicated Cardinal Giacomo Orsini and had him executed. The cardinal’s mother dedicated the Shrine of St. James in Vicovaro

204. Boniface IX Napoli 1389/1404 (15)

Pietro Tomacelli

Two Jubilees. The first in 1390, had been declared by his predecessor and droves of pilgrims came from Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, and England. The jubilee of 1400 drew even larger crowds of pilgrims to Rome, especially from France. In spite of a disastrous plague, Boniface remained in the city

205. Innocent VII Sulmona 1404/06 (2)

Cosimo de' Migliorati

206. Gregory XII Venezia 1406/15 (9)

Angelo Correr

Deposed at the Council of Pisa in 1409. He resigned in 1415. He died in 1417. In 1413 King Ladislas of Naples took hold of Rome and plundered it


Clement VII Geneva 1378/94 Roberto of the Counts of Savoy

Benedict XIII Ilescas (Aragon) 1394/1422 Pedro de Luna, re-elected in 1417

Clement VIII Barcelona 1423/29 Gil S. Muñoz, resigned in 1429 and died in 1446

Benedict XIV 1425/30 Bernard Garnier


Alelexander V Pietro Candia 1409/10 Filargis

John XXIII Ischia 1410/15 Baldassarre Cossa deposed in 1415 died in 1419

207. Martin V Genazzano (Rome) 1417/31 (13)

Oddone Colonna

He returned triumphantly to Rome in 1420. He wanted to live in the Vatican area

208. Eugene IV Venezia 1431/47 (16)

Gabriele Condulmer

He moved the university to the Palazzo della Sapienza. Buried in the refectory of S. Salvatore in Lauro with tomb of Isaiah from Pisa. He was forced by the Colonna faction to leave Rome and go to Florence for nine years

Felix V 1439/49 Amedeo Duke of Savoy, elected in Basel, renounced in Lausanne

209. Nicholas V Sarzana 1447/55 (8)

Tommaso Parentucelli

He began the new St. Peter’s Basilica Bernardo Rossellino in 1452 then interrupted. Chapel of Nicholas V in the Raphael rooms with frescoes by Fra' Giovanni da Fiesole known as Fra Angelico. He had the Aqua Virgo aqueduct restored in 1453 by Leon Battista Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino. Jubilee Year in 1450. He established that the Jubilee would have taken place thereafter every 25 years

210. Callistus III Jativa (Valencia) 1455/58 (3)

Alfonso Borgia

Buried in S. Maria in Monserrato with his nephew Alexander VI

211. Pius II Corsignano (Siena) 1458/64 (6)

Enea Silvio Piccolomini

He had the village where he was born, Corsignano, replanned by Bernardo Rossellino pupil of Leon Battista Alberti, the first "modern" urban planning. Corsignano changed name to Pienza after him

212. Paul II Venice 1464/71 (7)

Pietro Barbo

Palazzo Venezia. St. Mark's Basilica

213. Sixtus IV Celle Ligure (Savona) 1471/84 (13)

Francesco Della Rovere

Sistine Chapel. Sixtus Bridge. S. Maria del Popolo. S. Maria della Pace. Reconstruction of Ss. Vito and Modesto. Restoration of St. Peter in Chains. Funerary Monument by Antonio Benci aka Antonio Pollaiuolo in the Museum of the Basilica St. Peter

214. Innocent VIII Genova 1484/92 (8)

Giovan Battista Cybo

First pope to tighten relations with the Ottoman Empire. He persecuted witchcraft. He had many children, at least eight and maybe, according to some sources, even sixteen. In 1487 he appointed Tomas de Torquemada to be Grand Inquisitor of Spain and he was a great supporter of the Spanish Inquisition. He rebuilt S. Maria in Via Lata. He lived in his "Belvedere Palace" at the Vatican. Tomb in the St. Peter’s Basilica executed by Antonio Benci aka Antonio del Pollaiolo. On the tomb it is written During his reign the discovery of a New World, but the departure of Christopher Columbus from Palos de la Frontera (Spain) took place on August 3, 1492, a few days after his death

215. Alexander VI Jativa (Valencia) 1492/1503 (11)

Roderic Llançol i de Borja

Elected in the Sistine Chapel. He had seven children including Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia. Alexandrina Street opened in Borgo Pio. He had the Palazzo della Sapienza restored by Andrea da Firenze. He had an apartment in the Vatican painted by Bernardino di Betto aka Pinturicchio. He divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal with his bull Inter Caetera. Buried in S. Maria in Monserrato with his uncle Callistus III

216. Pius III Siena 1503 (26 days)

Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini

Pius II adopted nephew. Buried in S. Andrea della Valle

217. Julius II Albissola (Savona) 1503/13 (9)

Giuliano Della Rovere

He had the new St. Peter's Basilica began with Donato Bramante in 1506. He had Michelangelo painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the years 1508/12 and his apartment was painted by Raphael. He opened  Via Giulia. He restored St. Peter in Chains

218. Leone X Florence 1513/21 (9)

Giovanni de' Medici

Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. He opened via Leonina later called Via Ripetta. He excommunicated Luther in 1521. Buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva

219. Adrian VI Utrecht 1522/23 (2)

Adriaan Floriszoon

Last foreign pope before John Paul II. Buried in S. Maria dell’Anima

220. Clement VII Florence 1523/34 (11)

Giulio de' Medici

Son of Giuliano de' Medici, brother of Lorenzo the Magnificent and therefore cousin of Leo X. He caused the sack of Rome in 1527. He completed the "Trident" in 1525 with the Via Clementina, current Via del Babuino. Statues of Sts. Peter and Paul in Ponte Sant'Angelo. Buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva

221. Paul III Canino (Viterbo) 1534/49 (15)

Alessandro Farnese

Brother of Giulia Bella, the lover of Alexander VI Borgia who made him a cardinal. Michelangelo's Last Judgement. Palazzo Farnese (still as a cardinal). He planned the piazzas Farnese, S. Marco and Ss. Apostoli. Reconstruction of S. Spirito in Sassia. In 1536 he founded the Portuguese Inquisition. In 1538 he excommunicated the English King Henry VIII. Anglican schism. In 1540 he recognized the Society of Jesus of St. Ignatius of Loyola. In 1542 he instituted the Roman Inquisition and the Congregation of the Holy Office. 1545 beginning of the Council of Trent, which lasted, with interruptions, until 1563

222. Julius III Rome 1550/55 (5)

Giovan Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Villa Giulia. S. Andrea

223. Marcello II Montefano (Macerata) 1555 (22 days)

Marcello Cervini degli Spannocchi

 He was the last pope who kept his baptismal name. It forbade his family to move to Rome and had reduced the expenses of the court but he died too soon to implement the radicals reforms he seemed to want to promote. Buried in the Vatican grottoes

224. Paul IV Capriglia (Avellino) 1555/59 (4)

Gian Pietro Carafa

He instituted the ghetto for Jews in 1555. He persecuted Cardinal Reginald Pole. He was particularly fond of the Inquisition. He issued the Index of Forbidden Books. He prohibited the use of potatos introduced from the New World by Sir Francis Drake because he considered it an "evil plant". At his death the Romans beheaded his statue as an insulting taunt . Buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva

225. Pius IV Milan 1559/65 (6)

Giovanni Angelo Medici

Porta Pia. He began the ceiling of St. John Lateran Basilica. Leveled Piazza S. John Lateran.He expanded the neighborhood known as Borgo renamed Borgo Pio after him. He opened Via XX Settembre. He began the little house at the Vatican later known as Casina of Pius V. He assigned S. Stefano del Cacco to the Silvestrini Monks. He had the Palazzo della Sapienza restored by Guidetto Guidetti and Pirro Ligorio. He consecrated the Basilica of S. Maria degli Angeli where he is buried (in the apse). 1563 end of the Council of Trent

226. St. Pius V Bosco Marengo (Alessandria) 1566/72 (6)

Antonio Ghislieri

Dominican. Victory of Lepanto October 7, 1571: he received the winner Marco Antonio Colonna in triumph and kissed his feet! He finished the ceiling of the Basilica of St. John Lateran. Ss. Domenico e Sisto with a convent for the Dominican Sisters. Chapel of St. Pius V in the Vatican Museums. Buried in the Sistine Chapel in S. Maria Maggiore

227. Gregory XIII Bologna 1572/85 (13)

Ugo Boncompagni

Elected after a conclave lasted only one day. He reformed the calendar in 1582, known as Gregorian after his name. He strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.He opened via Merulana between St. Mary Major and St. John. Church of Our Lady of the Monti Neighborhood. St. Athanasius of the Greeks. Gallery of Maps in the Vatican Museums. Monument executed by Camillo Rusconi in the 3rd passage to the right of St. Peter's Basilica

228. Sixtus V Grottammare (Ascoli Piceno) 1585/90 (5)

Felice Peretti

He opened with his architect Domenico Fontana four streets radiating from S. Maria Maggiore. Villa Peretti Montalto. Lateran Palace. Felice Aqueduct. Vatican Library. He had roads paved (121 in only six months in 1587!). He drained the Pontine Marshes

229. Urban VII Rome 1590 (12 days)

Giovan Battista Castagna

Buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva. The second shortest pontificate in history after Stephen in 752 who reigned for three days only

230. Gregory XIV Cremona 1590/91 (1)

Niccolò Sfondrati

He was Pope for 315 days

231. Innocent IX Bologna 1591 (62 days)

Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti

Buried in the Vatican Crypt

232. Clement VIII Fano (Pesaro e Urbino) 1592/1605 (13)

Ippolito Aldobrandini

S. Maria Scala Coeli at the Abbey of the Three Fountains. Transept of St. John Lateran Basilica. Rooms in Castel Sant'Angelo. Anastasio Fontebuoni apse fresco of S. Balbina. Palazzo Aldobrandini later Palazzo Patrizi. Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati. Clementine Room at the Vatican. Parents buried in the Aldobrandini Chapel in S. Maria sopra Minerva. Buried in the Pauline Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore

233. Leo XI Florence 1605 (26 days)

Alessandro d’Ottaviano de' Medici

The mother was the granddaughter of Leo X. As titular cardinal of St. Praxedes he reconciled with France whose king, Henry IV, was married to Maria de' Medici. Buried in St. Peter’s Basilica in a tomb designed by Alessandro Algardi

234. Paul V Rome 1605/21 (16)

Camillo Borghese

He had Carlo Maderno finishing the façade of St. Peter’s Basilica in 1614 (inaugurated in 1612. Pauline Chapel in S. Maria Maggiore. Uncle of Cardinal Scipione Borghese

235. Gregory XV Bologna 1621/23 (2)

Alessandro Ludovisi

He canonized in 1622 S. Filippo Neri, known as St. Philip Neri in English. He instituted in 1622 the Congregation of Propaganda Fide. His bust by Alessandro Algardi is in the sacristy of the Chiesa Nuova. His funerary monument designed by Pierre Legros is in St. Ignatius

236. Urban VIII Florence 1623/44 (21)

Maffeo Barberini

He consecrated the new St. Peter's Basilica on 18 November 1626. Gianicolensi Walls. Pantheon: he took the bronze coating of the porch beams to make 80 guns for Castel S. Angelo and the columns of St. Peter's canopy. He had the corner column to the left replaced and commissioned Gian Lorenzo Bernini to build in 1626/27 two bell towers (the "donkey’s ears"). S. Salvatore in Campo

237. Innocent X Rome 1644/55 (10)

Giovan Battista Pamphilj

Villa Pamphilj. Palazzo Montecitorio. Palazzo Pamphilj, St. Agnes in Agone and Piazza Navona with the Fountain of the Four Rivers

238. Alexander VII Siena 1655/67 (12)

Fabio Chigi

Colonnade of St. Peter. Chair of St. Peter. Buried in St. Peter with Bernini's tomb

239. Clement IX Pistoia 1667/69 (2)

Giulio Rospigliosi

Pine forest of Fregene. 10 angels on Sant'Angelo Bridge. He had Carlo Rainaldi begin the rear façade of S. Maria Maggiore. Monument in S. Maria Maggiore by Carlo Rainaldi: "Pope's statue" by Domenico Guidi, on the right "Faith" by Cosimo Fancelli, on the left "Charity" by Ercole Ferrata

240. Clement X Rome 1670/76 (6)

Giovan Battista Emilio Altieri

Altieri Chapel in Santa Maria sopra Minerva with busts of his father and brother by Cosimo Fancelli. Palazzo Altieri. Village now in ruins of Monterano

241. Bl. Innocent XI Como 1676/89 (13)

Benedetto Odescalchi

He desired and financially supported the liberation of Vienna from the Turks in 1683 by the Polish King John Sobieski. Coat of arms in front of the Odescalchi Chapel in the Basilica of Sts. Apostles. Fountain in Piazza della Madonna dei Monti. Naves and the façade of S. Francesco a Ripa by Mattia De Rossi. His body is in the Clementina Chapel in St. Peter’s Basilica. Funerary monument in the 3rd area in between chapels of the left nave in the Basilica of St. Peter 1697/1701 by Carlo Maratta executed by Pierre-Etienne Monnot

242. Alexander VIII Venice 1689/91 (2)

Pietro Ottoboni

Alexandrina Hall in the Vatican Museums. He restructured the Torre dei Conti. Funerary monument in the passage area from the apse to the Chapel of the Column in St. Peter's Basilica

243. Innocent XII Spinazzola (Bari) 1691/1700 (9)

Antonio Pignatelli

He transformed Palazzo Montecitorio as a court and the Temple of Hadrian as Stock Exchange. Tomb in the Basilica of St. Peter by Ferdinando Fuga. Façade of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Frascati. He rebuilt the port of Anzio in 1698

244. Clement XI Urbino 1700/21 (20)

Giovanni Francesco Albani

Transformation into an eighteenth-century style of the Basilica of Sts. Apostles and St. Clement Basilica respectively by Francesco Fontana with his father Carlo Fontana and Carlo Stefano Fontana another son of Carlo Fontana. Reconstruction of St. Bridget, Church of the Holy Stigmata of St. Francis and St. Stephen of the Abyssinians. Albani Chapel in the Basilica of St. Sebastian. Fountain of the Mermen in Piazza Bocca della Verita. Façade of the Basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere modified by Carlo Fontana. He is buried under the floor of the Chapel of the Choir in St. Peter's Basilica

245. Innocent XIII Poli (Palestrina) 1721/24 (3)

Michelangelo Conti

He restored the Paolina Room in Castel Sant'Angelo. Spanish Steps. St. Eustace was completed with apse and transept. He had Alessandro Specchi building the stables of the Quirinal Palace. Buried in the Vatican Crypt

246. Benedict XIII Gravina (Bari) 1724/30 (6)

Vincenzo Maria Orsini

Monument by Carlo Marchionni with statues by Pietro Bracci and Bartolomeo Pincellotti in St. Dominic Chapel of S Maria sopra Minerva. Bust by Pietro Bracci in the Baptistery of S. Maria Maggiore. He rebuilt St. Nicholas of the Prefects. Oratory of the Holy Sacrament. Hospital and church of S. Maria in Gallicano

247. Clement XII Florence 1730/40 (10)

Lorenzo Corsini

He opened the museum in the Palazzo Nuovo on the Capitoline Hill in 1734. He began the Trevi Fountain. He had the stables of the Quirinal Palace finished by Ferdinando Fuga. He had Alessandro Galilei design the façades of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini and St. John in Lateran. He is buried in the latter church, in the Corsini Chapel. Sts. Celso and Giuliano. Church of the Infant Jesus. His nephew Cardinal Neri Corsini opened the Galleria Corsini. His busts by Pietro Bracci are in the Borghese Museum and in the Galleria Corsini

248. Benedict XIV Bologna 1740/58 (18)

Prospero Lambertini

Reconstruction of Sts. Marcellinus and Peter. Final restoration of the Basilica Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. Pinacoteca Capitolina (Capitoline Painting Gallery). Restoration of the porch of the Pantheon. He stopped in 1749 the destruction of the Colosseum. Fountain in Civitavecchia. He is buried in the passage to the right transept of St. Peter's Basilica with monument by Pietro Bracci

249. Clement XIII Venezia 1758/69 (11)

Carlo Rezzonico

Trevi Fountain completed with sculptures. Small Profane Museum in the Vatican Museums. Buried in the Chapel of St. Michael of St. Peter's Basilica with monument by Antonio Canova. Building in Civitavecchia where there is the Archaeological Museum

250. Clement XIV S. Arcangelo di Romagna 1769/74 (5)

Giovanni Vincenzo Ganganelli

Pio-Clementino Museum at the Vatican. In 1773 he suppressed the Jesuit order under the pressure of European monarchies: maybe it's a coincidence, but no pope chose Clement as a name anymore. Buried in the Basilica of St. Peter and translated in 1802 in the Basilica SS. Apostoli with monument 1783/87 by Antonio Canova (his first Roman work)

251. Pius VI Cesena 1775/99 (24)

Giovan Angelo Braschi

He completed the Pio-Clementino Museum in the Vatican. He restored the ceiling of the Basilica of St. John Lateran. In 1793 he reestablished the Jesuits in Russia. He died in exile in France. Buried in an early Christian sarcophagus with Canova plaque in the Vatican Crypt of St. Peter's Basilica

252. Pius VII Cesena 1800/23 (23)

Giorgio Chiaramonti

Elected in the monastery of S. Giorgio Maggiore in Venice, and crowned in the church next-door. A few months later he went to Rome. In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor in Paris in front of him. Arrested in the Quirinal Palace in 1809 and brought to France. He returned to Rome in 1814 when he re-established the order of the Jesuits worldwide. Chiaramonti Museum in the Vatican. He erected the Pincian Obelisk. He restored the Arch of Titus and the Milvian Bridge for his return to Rome. Buried in St. Peter’s Basilica with monument designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen

253. Leo XII Genga (Ancona) 1823/29 (5)

Annibale Sermattei dei Conti della Genga

Elected with the first conclave in the Quirinal Palace. Statue by Giuseppe De Fabris in the first passage on the right and tomb in the Chapel of the Column in St. Peter's Basilica

254. Pius VIII Cingoli (Macerata) 1829/30 (2)

Francesco Saverio Castiglioni

Tomb designed by Pietro Tenerani in the passage to the Clementine Chapel in St. Peter's Basilica. He abolished nepotism, including the abandonment of the practice of espionage carried out by his predecessors, and issued an encyclical condemning Bible societies and secret associations. When he died at age 69, there were rumors that he was poisoned

255. Gregory XVI Belluno 1831/46 (15)

Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari

He opened sections of the Vatican Museums: Gregorian Egyptian, Etruscan and Profane. Gregorian Hall in St. Paul's Basilica with statue by Rinaldo Rinaldi. Ripetta Walk. Villa Gregoriana in Tivoli. In 1832 with the encyclical Mirari Vos confirms his strong hostility to the separation of Church and State and freedom of conscience, thought, print. In 1839 with the encyclical In Supremo Apostolatus he condemned slavery as a “crime”

256. Pius IX Senigallia 1846/78 (32)

Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti

Longest pontificate in history not including St. Peter. Pius Christian Museum in the Vatican Museums. Buried in St. Lawrence Outside the Walls. In 1870 with the Breach of Porta Pia Rome became part of Italy and the capital. During the fighting on September 20, 1870 49 Italians soldiers and 19 papal soldiers got killed

257. Leo XIII Carpineto Romano (Rome) 1878/1903 (25)

Gioacchino Pecci

Apse of St. John Lateran where he is buried. Encyclical Rerum Novarum

258. St. Pius X Riese (Treviso) 1903/14 (11)

Giuseppe Sarto

Last pope to be declared saint before the canonizations of John XXIII and John Paul II in 2014. Statue by Pier Enrico Astori and body exposed in the Chapel of the Presentation in St. Peter’s Basilica. Holy Cross Basilica in Via Flaminia. Church of St. Joseph at Trionfale

259. Benedict XV Genoa 1914/22 (7)

Giacomo Della Chiesa

1915/18 World War One

260. Pius XI Desio (Milan) 1922/39 (17)

Achille Ratti

He signed the Concordat between the Italian State and Church of 1929 even if he was contrary to Fascism. He fought against Nazism also writing an encyclical in German "With deep concern" condemning the Nazi ideology. When Hitler visited Rome, he went away to Castel Gandolfo, closed the Vatican Museums and turned off all the lights the Vatican. Buried in the Vatican Crypt. Pontifical Irish College. Palace of the Pontifical Gregorian University. Church of the Great Mother of God

261. Pius XII Roma 1939/58 (19)

Eugenio Pacelli

1939/45 World War Two

262. St. John XXIII Brusicco Sotto il Monte (Bergamo) 1958/63 (5)

Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli

The good pope. Second Vatican Council 1962/65. Canonized in 2014

263. Paul VI Concesio (Brescia) 1963/78 (15)

Giovan Battista Montini

He completed the Second Vatican Council. First pope to travel by air and to visit all five continents

264. John Paul I Forno di Canale d'Agordo (Belluno) 1978 (33 days)

Albino Luciani

An autopsy on his body was not authorized and the causes of his sudden death still remain mysterious

265. St. John Paul II Wadowice Krakow (Poland) 1978/2005 (26)

Karol Wojtyla

Second longest pontificate in history after Pius IX, or third considering St. Peter's pontificate of which nobody knows the exact length. He was shot in St. Peter's Square on May 13 1981. First non-Italian pope in 455 years and first Polish pope, Slavic in general. He made more than 100 trips around the world. First pope to enter a synagogue from the time of St. Peter and the first ever to pray in a Lutheran church. He beatified 1338 and canonized 482 people, while his predecessors over the previous four centuries had declared some 300 saints only. In 1989 the Berlin Wall fell. He was canonized in 2014

266. Benedict XVI Marktl am Inn (Germany) 2005/13 (8)

Joseph Ratzinger

Seventh German pope. First pope to retire since Gregory XII times (1406/09). Now he has the title of emeritus pope

267. Francesco Buenos Aires (Argentina) 2013/current pope

Jorge Mario Bergoglio

First pope from the Americas. First Jesuit pope

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